The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake: Opening New Routes of Exploration and Exchange

Theo Sage-Martinson
National History Day

This summer I spent one week in London where I saw a recreation of Sir Francis Drake’s ship. When the school year began I thought of Drake immediately. I have always been interested in tall ships and privateers but never knew much about them. This topic was a great opportunity to research these subjects. The more I researched Drake, the more I gained interest in his voyages and the 16th and 17th Century.  Drake’s voyage is one of the most interesting subjects I have ever studied.

I started my research by reading several articles about Drake before traveling to the George Latimer Central Library to check out several books about Drake that proved very informational.  While continuing my research online, I traveled to St.Olaf’s library to use their online databases and pick up several more books. I then made a trip to the University of Minnesota’s Wilson library where I found several interesting accounts of Drake’s voyage. I also corresponded with and interviewed Michael Turner, the Co- Founder of the Drake Exploration Society. He is writing an 800 page book about Drake. This interview was vital to forming my argument.  On April 7 I went to the James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota and read several books published in the early 17th Century. I also viewed an original map from Drake’s later voyage. In late May I interviewed Nicholas Rodger a senior research partner at All Souls College in Oxford.

The second I heard about Drake I felt as though this topic would fit well with this year’s theme as Drake’s voyage of exploration contained many encounters as he worked to disrupt Spanish exchange. The Spanish naval forces were considered superior to English forces even though the English had longer ranged guns and superior ship design.  Sir Francis Drake’s successful privateering encounters and his use of new battle tactics against the Spanish dealt a blow to Spanish naval domination, which in turn helped shift the balance of global power.

One of the reasons I have enjoyed this topic is that I was able to study the age of the sail that as an American I did not know that much about. This topic has many different connections to the theme allowing me to branch out and tweak my thesis. Drake changed England forever by sailing into the Pacific. My topic not only fit with the theme but was also very interesting to research.

I chose to do a documentary because I have some experience doing a History Day documentary, as I have done them for the last two years. I really enjoy making a documentary as it allows me to represent my topic through many mediums like: video, images, and music. Making a documentary not only challenges my writing, researching and creative ability, but also my technical ability. Doing a documentary for several years has allowed me to expand my documentary skills. I used Final Cut Pro to make my documentary and ProTools for audio.

Video

Primary Sources

Books

Drake, Francis, and Francis Fletcher. The World Encompassed. N.p.: London, 1628. Print.

This book is a combination of journals from both Sir Francis Drake and Francis Fletcher about Drake’s voyage around the world. I got to read an original copy of this book in the James Ford Bell Library and found it very useful in understanding English viewpoints of the 1500’s.

Personall Narratives

Anton, San Juan De. “The Capture of the Cacafuego.” Abstract. Print.

This source is written by a man who was aboard the Cacafuego. It describes Drake’s capture of the Cacafuego. It helped me understand the battle between Drake and the Cacafuego.

Cooke, John. “Conflict Between Fleets.” (n.d.): n. pag. Abstract. (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

This account is about the conflict between Drake and the Spanish fleet led by Nuño Da Silva. This source helped me understand Drake’s ability to avoid capture by the Spanish and remain free.

Drake, John. “The Spanish Main.” Abstract. Print.

This source is by Sir Francis Drake’s young cousin John Drake. It describes their voyage up the Spanish Main. This source helped me understand the hardships that were faced by the crew aboard the Golden Hind.

Fletcher, Francis. “Account of Francis Drake on the California Coast, 1579” (1579).: n. pag. Web. 20 Feb. 16.

This account is from the minister aboard the Golden Hind, who was writing about the indigenous people that they encountered along the California or Oregon coast. This source helped me understand the encounter between the people of Nova Albion and Drake’s crew.

Fletcher, Francis. “Drake’s Encounter with the Indians.” Abstract. Print.

This source is about Drake’s encounter with the Native Americans in the Terra del Fuego. This source helped me understand the importance of establishing friendship with the Native Americans.

Fletcher, Francis. “The Great Storm.” (n.d.): n. pag. Abstract. (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

This source is written by the minister aboard the Golden Hind. It describes the storm that reduced five ships to one ship by routing and destroying ships. This source helped me understand the losses faced by Drakes fleet.

Fletcher, Francis. “Passage Through the Strait Begins.” (n.d.): n. pag. Abstract. (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

This source is written by the minister aboard the Golden Hind. This source is about entering the straits of Magellan. It helped me understand the hardships caused by lack of information about the strait. His voyage helped provide helpful information to sailors in the future.

Gamboa, Pedro Sarmiento De. “The Chase After Drake.” Abstract. Print.

This source is by a Spanish Captain who chased Drake out of El Callo, a port off the coast of Peru. This source helped me understand the hatred for Drake among the Spanish.

Lucero, Francisco, Gaper De Carranza, Jaun Martinez, and Thomas Xerores. “Declaration of Thomas Xerores.” Trans. Zelia Nuttall. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print.

This Declaration is from a sailor and old friend of Sir Francis Drake who was captured and taken to Lima to be imprisoned. He was later hung along with a few other English men who were captured. This source helped me understand how nervous the Spanish were that Drake and other Englishmen would establish colonies or attack their colonies on the west coast.

“Narrative of Sarmiento De Gamboa’s West to East Passage through the narrow of Magellan in Argensola’s Conquista De Las Islas Malucas” (1609).: n. pag. Web. 8 Sept. 2015

This article is about the preparations and reason for a west to east passage through the Straits of Magellan. This source helped me understand the shock that this attack caused the Spanish.

Nichols, Philip. “Drake’s Parting with the Cimaroons” (n.d.).: n. pag. Abstract. (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

This source is about Drake leaving Nombre de Dios to return to England in two stolen frigates. This source helped me understand Drake’s fame back at home after raiding Nombre de Dios.

Nichols, Philip. “Sir Francis Drake’s Raids on Panama” (n.d.).: n. pag. Abstract. (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

This source is about Drake’s many raids on Panama and how he saw the Pacific Ocean on a scouting mission. This source helped me understand the importance of Drake’s raids.

Pretty, Francis. “Sir Francis Drake’s Famous Voyage Round The World” (1580).: pag. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

This article is written by one of Sir Francis Drake’s Gentlemen at Arms. The article is a short but full account of the voyage. I got a lot of first hand information from this article and it helped me better understand the voyage.

Winter, John. “Declaration About Nuño Da Silva’s Ship” (n.d.).: n. pag. Abstract. (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

This source is about Nuño Da Silva’s chase after the Golden Hind in the Pacific as Da Silva’s ship was one of the only ships that could chase after Drake. This source helped me understand Drake’s new tactic of cutting ship’s cables.

Letters

Drake, Sir Francis. “Raid on Cadiz.” Letter to Unknown. Apr. 1587. MS. N.p.

This letter is from Sir Francis Drake to an unknown recipient about his daring raid on Cadiz and the sacking of the 30 ships. This letter helped me understand the motivation to sail into the port and spend two days and two nights fighting.

Duke of Medina Sidonia. “Warning to America.” Letter to Governor of Havana, Governor of Cartagena, Florida Governor Pedro Melendez, Governor of Puerto Rico, Hearing of Santo Domingo, Hearing of Panama, A Jamayca Island, Al Cales, A Margarita Island, Alvaro Flores. 1587. MS. N.p.

This letter from the Duke of Medina to the governors of Spanish colonies contains a warning about the appearance of Drake and his fleet, and that they have not attacked any other cities for a while and might be heading for west America. This source helped me understand the fear that Drake caused the Spanish.

Mercator, Gerard. “Letter Discussing the Voyage.” Letter to Abraham Ortelius. 12 Dec. 1580. MS. Duisburg.

This letter from Mercator to Ortelius talks about how great Drake’s Circumnavigation was and mentions the silliness of the cover up of their location. This letter helped me understand the discoveries that were lost with the cover up.

Toledo, Francisco De. “Report on the Incursion through the narrow by the English Ship and on the Precautions Taken against It.” Letter to Sarmiento De Gamboa. N.d. MS. N.p.

This letter is about the Golden Hind and what, where, and when it had been raiding, and included suggestions to catch the Golden Hind and how to prevent this happening again. This article helped me understand the Spanish perspective on what had been going on.

Maps

Boazio, Baptista. “The Famouse West Indian Voyadge Made by the Englishe Fleete of 23 Shippes.” N.p.: London, 1589. N. pag. Print.

This map depicts Drake’s later voyage to the West Indies with 23 ships. I got to see this source first hand at the James Bell Ford Library. This map helped gain greater knowledge on Drake’s later voyage to the West Indies.

“The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake.” N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Web. 6 Sept. 2015.

This map honors Drake for his achievement in charting the New World. The map helped me understand what a great influence Drake had on map making and so many other things, like forever changing the British economy.

Paintings

Bazio. The Raid of Cartagena. 1588. Library of Congress, n.p.

This painting is of the Raid of Cartagena, it depicts Drake’s fleet in the bay of the city and his invading force nearing the city fully armed. This source helped me understand the number of privateers that Drake commanded.

Bazio. The Raid of Santiago. 1588. Library of Congress, n.p.

In this painting of Drake’s army approaching the city of Santiago and the much smaller militia gathering on the other side of the town, while Drake’s fleet fought a ship that was defending the town. This painting helped me understand Drake’s nickname “El Drako” or the dragon, because he attacked with such ferocity and speed.

Bazio. The Raid of Santo Domingo. 1588. Library Of Congress.

This painting depicts Drake’s fleet in the bay and river of the small town of Santo Domingo while his massive invading force marched towards the town. This painting helped me understand Drake’s sheer numbers and power.

Bazio. The Raid of St. Augustine. 1589. Library of Congress, n.p.

This source is a painting of Sir Francis Drake’s raid on St. Augustine. This source helped me understand Drake’s military genius and the importance of the attacks in the 1500s.

Secondary Sources

Articles

Hampshire, C.E. “Drake’s Voyage Round the World.” N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This article strongly focuses on his infamous voyage around the world. It contains several large details that were interesting. This article helped me understand the difficulties of raiding the ports in western South America.

Kraus, Hans P. “The Caribbean Raid, 1585-1586.” Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2015.

This article is about a series of raids Drake did after circumnavigating the world. In most of the raids he just pillaged and ransomed the town but in one or two he burned the town as well. This article helped me understand his later career as a privateer. The article also contained several other sources that were useful.

Kraus, Hans P. “The Cadiz Raid, 1587.” Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2015.

This article is about one of Drake’s most famous raids, wherein he destroyed many Spanish ships and even more supplies. This source helped me understand his role throughout the war.

Kraus, Hans P. Drake’s First Success: Panama, 1572-1573. Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This article described the raid on Nombre De Dios that made Drake famous. This article greatly helped me understand why it was significant, and why he is considered to be such a great privateer.

Kraus, Hans P. The Famous Voyage: The Circumnavigation of the World. Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

This article is another full account of the voyage. This article helped me understand that voyage was meant to be a voyage to gather riches and treasures. The article also helped me understand a little bit of the accomplishments of the voyage.

Kraus, Hans P. The Spanish Defenses of the Strait of Magellan, the Pacific Coast and the Caribbean after the Drake Circumnavigation. Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This article describes the measures to secure the Spanish coast, which proved defenseless. This article helped me greater understand the influence that Drake had on the Spanish, and how he woke them up with his raid.

Books

Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby. The Wind Commands Me; a Life of Sir Francis Drake. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965. Print.

This book covers Sir Francis Drake’s life but dives deep into his famous voyage and his defeat of the Spanish fleet. The Wind Commands Me was one of the first big picture things that I read and provided lots of information.

Loades, D. M. England’s Maritime Empire: Seapower, Commerce, and Policy, 1490-1690. Harlow, England: Longman, 2000. Print.

This book is about how England’s sea power changed from 1490-1690. This book helped me understand how Drake fit in and changed British sea power. This book also helped me understand a timeline of major sea battles.

Sanderlin, George William. The Sea-dragon; Journals of Francis Drake’s Voyage around the World. New York: Harper & Row, 1969. Print.

This book is about Drake’s circumnavigation of the globe. This source contained many journals from Drake’s voyage, which helped me understand lots of key information about the voyage.

Whitfield, Peter. Sir Francis Drake. New York: New York UP, 2004. Print.

This book not only covers Drake’s voyages, but this book dives into his motivations and emotions. I had never read anything about his personality, this book help me understand a whole new point of view on Drake.

Documentaries

Drake’s Secret Voyage. History Channel, n.d+16 August 2001.

This documentary focuses on the grand voyage, but does branch off to explain Francis’s early years and his victory over the Spanish armada. This source helped me understand the effect this voyage and Sir Francis Drake had on England.

Empire of the Seas. Perf. Dan Snow. BBC, 10. Web.

This documentary is about the sea’s role in forming England’s financial success. This source helped me understand England’s control of the seas and trade networks.

The Golden Age of Piracy Terror at Sea. BBC, n.d. Online.

This documentary is about all famous pirates of many different ages and talks about Sir Francis Drake. This source helped me understand Sir Francis Drake’s effect on other privateers and pirates.

The King’s Ships 1500-1599. The Royal Navy, n.d. Web.

This source talked a lot about ship designs at the time of Sir Francis Drake, although they do mention him a bit. This source helped me understand his military role and the design of the Golden Hind.

Sir Francis Drake. N.d. Online Film.

This documentary focuses on Sir Francis Drake as a military player but does talk a lot about his earlier life. This source helped me understand Sir Francis Drake’s military career and how he greatly influenced the outcome of the “cold” war.

The Spanish Armada. The History Channel. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

This film is about the 1588 defeat of the Spanish armada. This source helped me understand Drake’s role in the defeat of the armada and the starting of the Anglo- Spanish war.

Personal Interviews

Turner, Michael. “Interview with Michael Turner.” Telephone interview. 22 Feb. 16.

Michael Turner is a founding member of the Drake Exploration Society and he is on the finishing steps of an over 800-page book on Sir Francis Drake. Turner spends his free time traveling to sites important to Drake or to his voyages. This interview helped me understand and build evidence about Sir Francis Drake’s legacy.

Rodger, Nicholas. “Interview with Nicholas Rodger.” Telephone interview.

Nicholas Rodger is Royal Navy historian and senior researcher at All Souls College in Oxford. He has published several different books on the Royal Navy. This interview helped me understand Drake’s legacy.

Web Publications

“Anglo Spanish Wars.” Heritage History. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This website is about the first Anglo-Spanish War and the large religious aspect of the conflict and how the Pope blessed the Spanish army. This source helped me understand the large importance of religion and Drake in the starting of the war.

Black, Garick. “Sir Francis Drake.” Famous Soldiers in the Atlantic World. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015.

This source is a broad website about Sir Francis Drake’s life and voyages. This website help me create a relative time line of Drake’s life.

“California Explorers: Sir Francis Drake.” California Explorers. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This website is about Sir Francis Drake’s time on the west coast of North America and his relationship with the Native Americans. This source helped me understand the importance of Drake’s visit to the coast.

Cameron, Kirk. “How Sir Francis Drake Changed the World.” Kirk Cameron. N.p., n.d. Web.

This source is about Drake’s influence on the world and how he made England into a major sea power. This website helped me understand Drake’s religious background and how that influenced him to change the world.

“Defeat of the Spanish Armada.” British Battles. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Jan. 16.

This website goes into a lot of details about the series of battles, including listing every known ship of both the Spanish and English and its captain. This source helped me understand the odds were on the English side and the importance of Sir Francis Drake.

“Drake Attacks Cadiz.” Information-Britain. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 16.

This source is about Sir Francis Drake’s powerful attack on the port town of Cadiz where some of the ships who were supposed to sail for England. This website helped me understand the damage dealt to the king of Spain with this attack.

“The European Tobacco Trade from the 15th to the 17th Centuries.” University of Minnesota Libraries. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2016.

This website is about the tobacco trade in Europe and how Sir Francis Drake introduce it to England. This source helped me understand Drake’s impact as he brought tobacco and the potato to England.

“Francis Drake.” The Ages of Exploration. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2016.

This source is about how Sir Francis Drake sailed around the world via navigational information about South America and some Pacific Islands. This source helped me understand how little information existed about South America before Drake.

“Francis Drake.” Bio. com. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source is a fairly big picture source although it did contain necessary details I had not yet heard. This source helped me understand his second to last raid a great deal better.

“Francis Drake.” History. com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source is a very brief overview of his life, although it does mention his strong contribution to English naval history. This source helped me get a general feel for the topic.

Seeler, Oliver. “Francis Drake and the Native People of Nova Albion.” Drake. mcn.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source talks about the Native Americans that are assumed to be Coast Miwok and Sir Francis Drake’s connection with them. This source helped me understand this incredible encounter between two peoples from vastly different cultures, which ended peacefully.

Seeler, Oliver. “Francis Drake The Voyage.”. mcn.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source is a brief look at the voyage. This source helped me get an overview of this topic. This website also helped me find several other sources about other parts of Sir Frances Drake.

Seeler, Oliver. “Sir Francis Drake and the Llamas.” Drake.mcn.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source talks about the crew’s encounter with llamas and there raiding of llama trains carrying silver. This source helped me understand what a new world these people were stepping into.

Seeler, Oliver. “Smoke and Mirrors…” Drake.mcn.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source discusses the true hiding place of Nova Albion. This source also talks about the weird conditions and deception around the location of the famous bay. It helped me understand the reason why people argue about the location of this bay.

“Sir Francis Drake.” BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

This source is a very brief account of his life as a seaman. Other than that this source had no focus that was useful. This source helped me get a good big picture look at Sir Francis Drake’s life.

“Sir Francis Drake.” Golden Hind. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2015.

This source explains his importance, and covers most of his life briefly. This source helped me understand the importance of his ship to many people.

“Sir Francis Drake.” History Extra. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This source is about the life and adventures of Drake, it goes in depth about his last few raids. This website helped me understand his unsuccessful launching in November that was stopped by weather.

“Sir Francis Drake.” History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2016.

This website is about Sir Francis Drake’s life and how he affected the world around him, it also mentioned his early life living in an old ship. This source helped me understand the effect that Drake’s upbringing had on him.

“Sir Francis Drake.” Royal Museums Greenwich. N.p., 05 Aug. 2015. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This website is about Drake and if he is a hero or a villain, it covers his whole life and moments that some people would consider great and some would consider terrible. This source helped me understand the anger of the Spanish when Sir Francis Drake was knighted.

“Sir Francis Drake.” Princeton Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This source is about Sir Francis Drake’s secret voyage and its importance to England. It also mentions the secrecy around the voyage. This website helped me understand why the mission was so secret.

“SIR FRANCIS DRAKE (1540-1596).” Famous Lives. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2016.

This website is about Sir Francis Drake’s life and how it affected the rest of the world and history, it goes in depth about his raids on Cadiz. This source helped me understand Drake’s effect on the delay and defeat of the Armada.

“Spanish Armada Defeated.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This source retells the daring victory over the mighty Spanish armada and how military genius overtook numbers. This website helped me understand how important Drake’s raids on Cadiz and how much those raids slowed down the armada.

“The Spanish Armada Of 1588.” Elizabeth the First. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2016.

This source is about the defeat of the 1588 Spanish Armada and the queen’s role in the defeat. This website helped me understand Drake’s relationship to the queen and his very important role in the defeat of the Spanish Armada.

Pictures

Old World Map. Digital image. Web.

A map of the world from the 1500’s.

A Spanish Galleon. Digital image. Web.

A painting of a Spanish galleon.

Grace Dieu. Digital image. Web.

A painting of one of Henry the 5th’s flagships.

Sir Francis Drake en Santo Domingo. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Sir Francis Drake’s attack on Santa Domingo.

Old Sea Battle Painting. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of a Dutch-Anglo naval battle.

Anglo Spanish War 1585-England. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting made for the Anglo Spanish war of 1585 of Queen Elizabeth.

Anglo Spanish War 1585-Spain. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting made for the Anglo Spanish war of 1585 of King Phillip.

Somerset House Conference. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of peace talks at the Somerset house between England and Spain in 1614.

Ortelius World Map. Digital image. Web.

This is map of the world from circa 1500.

Union Jack Old. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of the old Union Jack.

Spanish Flag. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of a Spanish Flag.

Spanish Slaves. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of Spanish slaves working at a mine in South America.

The Black Death Plague. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting representing the black death.

Battle Between England and Spain. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting depicts the 7-day battle from the failed Spanish armada.

Marcus Gheeraert’s Sir Francis Drake. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of Sir Francis Drake from 1590.

John Hawkins. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of Sir John Hawkins.

Sir Francis Drake, Captain of the Revenge. Digital image. Web.

This is Sir Francis Drake’s armada portrait.

Jesus of Ludbeck. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of the Jesus Ludbeck.

The Battle of San Juan De Ulua. Digital image. Web.

This is a painting of the battle that Sir Francis Drake escaped on one of the two ships that made it out of the port.

Orbis Plancius. Digital image. Web

This is a map from 1594.

Mule Train. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of a mule train hauling goods across Panama.

Drake in Panama. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Drake seeing the Pacific for the first time.

Nombre De Dios. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Drake attacking Nombre de Dios.

Queen Elizabeth the First. Digital image. Web.

This is a panting of Queen Elizabeth the first.

Parchment Map. Digital image. Web.

This is a current map made to look like parchment.

Golden Hind. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of the Golden Hind.

El Callao. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of El Callao.

Nuestra Senora de la Conception. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of the Cacafuego.

El Cacafuego. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Drake attacking the Cacafuego.

Drake Capturing the Cacafuego. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Drake attacking the Cacafuego.

Francis Drake Engaging the Cacafuego. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Sir Francis Drake capturing the Cacafuego.

Capture of the Cacafuego. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Sir Francis Drake capturing the Cacafuego.

Sir Francis Drake en Cartagena. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Sir Francis Drake attacking Cartagena.

Sir Francis Drake on the Spanish Main. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Drake attacking a city on the Spanish Main.

Elizabeth Pelican. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Queen Elizabeth the First.

Battle of Trafalgar. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of the Battle of Trafalgar.

Defense of Cadiz. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of Drake’s attack on Cadiz.

The Spanish Armada. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of the Spanish Armada.

British Colonies 1763-1776. Digital image. Web.

This is a map of British colonies 1763-1776.

Map of British Control. Digital image. Web.

This is a map of British control.

Sir Francis Drake Map. Digital image. Web.

This is a map of Drake’s circumnavigation of the globe.

Drake Circumnavigation World Map. Digital image. Web.

This is a map of Drake’s circumnavigation of the globe.

British Ships in World War 2. Digital image. Web.

This image depicts all Royal Navy ships used in World War 2.

Old Crackly Parchment. Digital image. Web.

This is an image of parchment.

Videos

Sir Francis Drake TV Intro. Web.

This is video of a recreation of the Golden Hind sailing.

Music

Real Cannon Sound Effect. Web.

This is a cannon sound effect.

Flow my Tears by: John Dowland. Web.

This is a classic song from 1530-1630.

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